December 7, 2022

deps.edn and monorepos X (Polylith)

This is part of an ongoing series of blog posts about our ever-evolving use of the Clojure CLI, deps.edn, and Polylith, with our monorepo at World Singles Networks.

The Monorepo/Polylith Series

This blog post is part of an ongoing series following our experiences with our Clojure monorepo and our migration to Polylith:

  1. deps.edn and monorepos
  2. deps.edn and monorepos II
  3. deps.edn and monorepos III (Polylith)
  4. deps.edn and monorepos IV
  5. deps.edn and monorepos V (Polylith)
  6. deps.edn and monorepos VI (Polylith)
  7. deps.edn and monorepos VII (Polylith)
  8. deps.edn and monorepos VIII (Polylith)
  9. deps.edn and monorepos IX (Polylith)
  10. deps.edn and monorepos X (Polylith) (this post)
  11. deps.edn and monorepos XI (Polylith)

Part X

Since my last post, a month ago, our Polylith migration has continued strongly, adding eight more components with seven more implementations -- so that means we have another swappable implementation which I'll talk about below -- and two more bases and one more project. We've migrated 114,114 lines of code, which is nearly 86% of our total codebase. The remaining code has two fairly large applications and a shared subproject with almost twenty namespaces and a large API surface area. It's also under very active development right now. That final stretch of the migration will be a bear!

I feel like this part of the series could be subtitled "Polylith to the Rescue" as it has helped us quickly deal with a number of unforeseen and somewhat "last minute" problems that cropped up for us this past month.

To set the scene for that, we decided that since Jetty 9 was out of community support (as of June 2022) and it doesn't look like Ring will update to Jetty 10/11 any time soon, we would switch to Ning Sun's Jetty adapter which, despite its name having jetty9 in it, is a Jetty 11 adapter and it provides a nice, built-in WebSocket API. The latter was very appealing to us because we'd just wrestled with adding WebSocket support via Java interop on top of Jetty 9 and it was a pretty nasty experience (mostly because Jetty supports two completely different implementations with different APIs and the documentation sucks). I was very happy to jettison that code, in favor of Ning Sun's Clojure API!

Polylith External Test Runner

But before we get to the (multiple) "rescues", I want to talk about an interesting new feature that has been added to Polylith: the ability to have an external test runner that avoids the classloader and memory issues I mentioned in my last post. Although those issues have had some mitigating Pull Requests merged in, our codebase is large enough and complex enough that we were still running into some issues, and we had to use 2x BitBucket Pipelines instances to run poly test.

Although I created an initial Pull Request to refactor poly test to support an external test runner, the real heavy lifting was done by Furkan Bayraktar in an epic Pull Request that garnered a lot of discussion and was a far more idiomatic solution than my original attempt! Thank you, Furkan!

Here's my external test runner that leverages this new feature. poly test determines which projects need testing and which bricks' tests need to be run, then it hands control over to the test runner which spawns a process for each project, to run setup, tests, and teardown in complete isolation from the Polylith process itself. This removes all the issues with classloader isolation and memory consumption since each project is tested separately. There's an overhead here in terms of performance since a new Clojure process will be spun up for each project, but this is intended for large projects where memory use is more of a concern.

Polylith already had a pluggable test runner system, so you could use the Kaocha test runner in-process instead of the built-in default test runner. This extends that functionality to support out-of-process test runners as well.

Switching to this test runner allowed us to reduce our BitBucket Pipelines instance back to 1x, cutting our CI costs in half. But we weren't done! Read on for more CI cost savings!

Polylith to the Rescue, Part 1

As noted above, we switched from Jetty 9 to Jetty 11 this month and it all went very smoothly, until we went to deploy a new build from staging to production. We have an internal "admin app" that manages all of the configuration and nearly all of the content for our dating platform. It runs in both our staging and production tiers, with "promote to production" functionality on staging and, mostly, moderation functionality on production. In addition to promoting various types of translated content, we added the ability for the business team to promote build artifacts whenever they're happy with new functionality on staging. Artifact promotion triggers an automated deployment across the production cluster, which we handle by uploading the JAR to S3 and creating a flag that indicates a new deployment is needed. That S3 upload was handled by Cognitect's AWS API.

Unfortunately, it isn't compatible with Jetty 11 and I didn't notice that until we went to do our first promotion after the upgrade (the artifact uploader tests run in a context that doesn't have Jetty at all so they passed).

Time was fairly critical at this point, because -- unusually for us -- we were juggling some infrastructure changes and renaming as part of the same overall build.

"Polylith to the Rescue!" -- I copied our web-server component to web-server-9, edited the dependencies to switch that implementation back to the standard Jetty 9 Ring adapter, updated projects/wsadmin/deps.edn to use that implementation instead of the regular web-server one, and triggered a build and deploy of the "admin app" to staging.

We were able to continue our deployment with only about a 30 minute delay!

Note: we've since switched from the Cognitect AWS API to Michael Glasemann's awyeah-api which doesn't depend on the Jetty 9 HTTP client and is therefore compatible with our Jetty 11 codebase (so we deleted that web-server-9 component).

Polylith to the Rescue, Part 2

We have a legacy app, that predates our switch to Clojure and still requires JDK 8 to run. We're probably going to rewrite it completely at some point so migrating it completely to Clojure is low on our list of priorities. In fact, we haven't even deployed a new version of it for almost ten months. But it does rely on some shared Clojure code (called from ColdFusion -- I kid you not!) and we've done a lot of refactoring on the Clojure side since then. I decided it was time to update it so that -- if necessary -- we could build and deploy a new version of it.

The last time I worked on it, the ColdFusion code depended on two of our "kitchen sink" Clojure subprojects which have since been broken up and migrated to Polylith. The app had its own legacy subproject with deps.edn and had no associated "build" project, since it was deployed from a tarball of source code (mixed CFML and Clojure). Figuring out exactly which Polylith components it now depended on was... well, a bit of a nightmare to be honest. I spent a couple of days, updating namespace references in the CFML code and updating deps.edn, trying to get the app to start up and run cleanly but it was pretty frustrating.

Overnight, I had an idea: use Polylith to figure out the dependencies!

The next day, I moved the app's legacy subproject into a Polylith base and added a project for the "build" aspect -- and poly check told me exactly which bricks were missing from the new project's deps.edn file!

When the app starts up, it runs clojure -Spath -A:cfml-app to get the classpath of all the Clojure code and its dependencies, so I modified that alias in our main deps.edn to depend on the new project (instead of the old subproject) and the app came up on the first attempt!

A nice side-effect of this was that the legacy Clojure code that is only used by this legacy CFML app is automatically tested by Polylith when we change anything that might affect it, so we can be more confident that we haven't broken that app (and haven't messed up its dependencies) for any future deployment of it we decide to do.

Polylith to the Rescue, Part 3

I did slightly gloss over one additional problem I ran into while getting that legacy app up and running again on JDK 8: the fact that we'd switched from Jetty 9 to Jetty 11 -- and that's not compatible with JDK 8.

Although the CFML code runs on a different web server (Undertow), we reuse some of the web server adjacent functionality from our Clojure code base, such as health checks for our monitoring services. That brought a little bit of Jetty 11 into the mix and caused the app to fail on JDK 8.

As with the Cognitect AWS API issue above, the solution was to create an alternative implementation of our web-server component that stubbed out the part that relied on Jetty 11 so we could reuse it on JDK 8 without having to refactor it into separate pieces and update all the code that referred to those pieces.

Polylith to the Rescue, Part 4

And finally, we come to the CI cost savings I hinted at earlier. Polylith is already giving us shorter CI cycles since it only tests code that could be affected by changes (since the last staging deploy) -- although if you change a component that is very widely used it can cause a bit of a cascade of testing which means some CI cycles might be longer than just testing all the components on their own (Polylith runs tests for each project that might be affected). In general, our CI cycles for Pull Requests are down to around five minutes rather than the fifteen they used to be before Polylith.

Being able to switch back to a regular instance instead of the 2x instance, now that we've switched to the external test runner, has also cut costs.

But we were still building all the project artifacts and deploying them all to staging which meant an extra 10-15 minutes for all merges to the main branch.

"Polylith to the Rescue!" here as well, because you can ask Polylith to print a list of projects that are affected by changes, so you know which ones to rebuild and deploy. This is explained in the Continuous Integration section of the Polylith documentation:

poly ws get:changes:changed-or-affected-projects since:release skip:dev

We want to run that programmatically and capture the output, and read it as EDN, so we also need color-mode:none to produce plain text.

We invoke this in our build.clj file using to run that as a java subprocess, based on the :poly alias in our workspace deps.edn file, and capture the output.

(defn- changed-projects
  "Produce the list of projects that need building.

  `since` should be `:before-tag` or `:after-tag`"
  (let [basis    (b/create-basis {:aliases [:poly]})
        combined (t/combine-aliases basis [:poly])
        cmds     (b/java-command
                  {:basis     basis
                   :java-cmd  (find-java)
                   :java-opts (:jvm-opts combined)
                   :main      'clojure.main
                   :main-args (into (:main-opts combined)
                                     (str "since:"
                                          (case since
                                            :before-tag "release"
                                            :after-tag  "previous-release"))
        {:keys [exit out err]}
        (b/process (assoc cmds :out :capture))]
    (when (seq err) (println err))
    (if (zero? exit)
      (edn/read-string out)
      (throw (ex-info "Unable to determine changed projects"
                      {:exit exit :out :out})))))

The since argument allows us to get changes before or after we've added the new release tag in CI (we test first, then tag, then build -- so the tag is only applied to passing builds and can then be incorporated into the JAR file).

Then we have a task like this to build all the artifacts that changed:

(defn build-all-uberjars
  "Build uberjars for all changed artifacts."
  (let [projects (-> (changed-projects (get params :since :before-tag))
                     (set/difference (set billing-build-artifacts)))]
    (uberjars (assoc params :projects projects))))

billig-build-artifacts is the list of projects that are not yet migrated to Polylith.

Just in time for the holiday season, Polylith is the gift that keeps on giving!

Tags: clojure polylith monorepo